Steven B. Redd

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Political Science

Bolton Hall 646
Milwaukee, WI

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My research focuses on the cognitive and psychological factors that influence leaders' foreign policy decision making. Specifically, I most often use experimental methods to investigate how personal and situational factors influence how decision makers process information and how those factors as well as the process itself affects foreign policy choices. I am currently working on several projects including how leadership objectives and preferences affect decision making in ethno-territorial disputes as well as how ethnic diasporas affect congressional-level decision making in foreign policy settings.

Redd, Steven B. “Explaining U.S. Policy Toward China and Taiwan.” 2007. In Identity and Change in East Asian Conflicts: The Cases of China, Taiwan, and the Koreas, ed. Shale Horowitz, Uk Heo, and Alexander C. Tan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Abstract: I examine U.S. foreign policy toward China and Taiwan by first briefly reviewing the historical context of U.S. policy during the Cold War. I then examine U.S. national security strategy in the post-Cold War era, focusing on the administrations of presidents William Clinton and George W. Bush. I examine both internal and external factors that have helped shape U.S. foreign policy toward these two countries. I conclude by briefly discussing policy implications for U.S. foreign policy in the present and future.
Redd, Steven B. 2005. “The Influence of Advisers and Decision Strategies on Foreign Policy Choices: President Clinton’s Decision to Use Force in Kosovo.” International Studies Perspectives 6:129-150.
Abstract: In the following paper, I analyze the influence of advisers and domestic political factors on President Clinton’s decision to use force against Slobodan Milosevic and the Serbs in Kosovo in March 1999. I present an analysis and examination of President Clinton’s decision-making process, using press reports, personal speeches, etc. In other words, I attempt to trace the process by which Clinton came to the decision to use force in Yugoslavia. Specifically, using the poliheuristic theory, I argue that President Clinton’s decision was influenced by noncompensatory domestic political calculations and the strong influence of his Secretary of State, Madeleine K. Albright. Examining how advisers interact with one another, their status in the advisory group, and the manner in which presidents solicit information from advisers will further our understanding of how, when, and under what conditions national securitylevel decision makers make decisions.
Rubenzer, Trevor, and Steven B. Redd. 2010. “Ethnic Minority Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy: Examining Congressional Decision Making and Economic Sanctions.” 2010. International Studies Quarterly 54:755-777.
Abstract: Previous research on the role of ethnic minority interest groups in US foreign policy has resulted in the development of an extensive list of criteria thought to condition ethnic minority influence. Existing case studies, in spite of their significant contribution, leave open the question of which factors, if any, actually drive influence. The result is a foreign policy decision-making puzzle. We know that ethnic minority groups attempt to influence foreign policy. We also know that foreign policy decision makers sometimes choose the option favored by certain ethnic minority groups. What practitioners and scholars alike do not know is whether decision makers make choices because of the efforts of ethnic minority groups. The experimental designs presented in this study offer the opportunity to solve the puzzle by isolating the impact of diasporic interests on foreign policy decision making at the congressional level. Using a hypothetical foreign policy scenario, the study examines the independent and interactive effects of diasporic numerical significance, diasporic mobilization, and cultural similarity on foreign policy decision making. Results indicate that decision makers are highly responsive to diasporic mobilization, but were unresponsive to diasporic numerical significance and cultural similarity. The overall implication is that small, but highly mobilized, ethnic minority interest groups may be able to significantly influence the development of US foreign policy at the congressional level.

Substantive Focus:
International Relations PRIMARY

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Process Theory PRIMARY